Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a range of medical problems involving many organ systems. A subset of children with ASD hasve abnormal mitochondrial energy production and function that contributes to their physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments. The presence of mitochondrial dysfunction increases the risk for potential damage to the brain, which is dependent on oxidative metabolism. This risk is more pronounced during procedures that require anesthesia. Because ASD children often undergo medical procedures (like endoscopies, adenoidectomies, tonsillectomies, and ear tube placement) requiring anesthesia, regression with anesthesia is of particular concern for the subset of children with ASD and mitochondrial dysfunction.